Myths and facts about drinking water.
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- Calcium – important in bone health and possibly cardiovascular health
- Magnesium – important in bone and cardiovascular health
- Fluoride – effective in preventing dental caries
- Sodium – an important extracellular electrolyte, lost under conditions of excess sweat
- Copper – important in antioxidant function, iron utilization and cardiovascular health
- Selenium – important in general antioxidant function and in the immune system
- Potassium – important for a variety of biochemical effects but it is usually not found in natural drinking waters at significant levels.
Keep in mind ! drinking too much water too quickly can lead to water intoxication. Water intoxication occurs when water dilutes the sodium level in the bloodstream and causes an imbalance of water in the brain. For example health consequences of micro nutrient deficiencies include increased morbidity, mortality. Due to reduced immune defense systems and impaired physical and mental development. Deficiencies of several mineral elements, particularly iron and iodine, are the basis of health problems in many parts of the world.
Nearly 40% of the world’s women are estimated to be anemic due, to a great extent, to poorly bioavailable dietary iron. Low intakes of calcium, and perhaps magnesium, contribute to rickets in children and osteoporosis in women worldwide. Due to inadequate diets, many children are deficient in iron, zinc, and Copper and other micronutrients especially in developing countries. One third of the world’s children fail to reach their physical and mental potentials and many are made vulnerable to infectious diseases that account for half of all child deaths.
Nearly 750 million people have goiter or my edematous cretinism due to iodine deficiency, and almost 2 billion people have inadequate iodine nutrition. These nutritional deficiencies decrease worker productivity and increase the rates of disease and death in adults. Many result from diets that may also involve insufficient intakes of copper, chromium and boron. That’s why many persons consume mineral waters because of the perception that they may be more healthful. Loss of hydration in the skin shows in all sorts of ways – dryness, tightness, flakiness.
Dry skin has less resilience and is more prone to wrinkling. Water is essential to maintain skin moisture and is the vehicle for delivering essential nutrients to the skin cells. As water is lost in large quantities every day – it stands to reason you have to replace it somehow. Taking water into the body by drinking during the day is important but most dermatologists will tell you that to maintain the skin’s moisture levels you need to keep it there too. In other words – drinking water for skin health isn’t enough. As you can see, water is crucial to our overall and biological make up and our lives depend on it. We could actually survive longer without food than we could without water. But you must consider, that water can be different in many cases. There can be many factors as:
- It might be a different daily consumption of drinking water for individuals, considering climate, exercise, age and other factors.
- Some substances are found in drinking water that can contribute significantly to health and well-being.
- Under some conditions can drinking water become a significant contribution to the total dietary intake of certain beneficial substances.
- Some conclusions can be drawn about the relationship between calcium, magnesium and other trace elements in water and mortality from certain types of cardiovascular disease.
If hydration levels drop by just 2%, we’re likely to suffer side effects, such as a fuzzy head and a lack of concentration.
Minimum Water Requirements to your healthy skin and whole body
The minimum requirement for water is the amount that equals losses and prevents adverse effects of insufficient water, such as dehydration. There are numerous limitations associated with the requirement estimates used to make recommendations. Environmental temperature and humidity, altitude, volume of air inspired, air currents, clothing, blood circulation through skin, and water content of the body can all affect insensible water loss. Given the extreme variability in water needs which are not solely based on differences in metabolism, but also in environmental conditions and activity, there is not a single level of water intake that would ensure adequate hydration and optimal health for half of all apparently healthy persons in all environmental conditions.
The role of water and hydration in physical activity, particularly in athletes and in the military, has been of considerable interest and is well-described in the scientific literature. During challenging athletic events, it is not uncommon for athletes to lose 6–10% of body weight in sweat loss, thus leading to dehydration if fluids have not been replenished. However, decrements in physical performance in athletes have been observed under much lower levels of dehydration, as little as 2%. Under relatively mild levels of dehydration, individuals engaging in rigorous physical activity will experience decrements in performance related to reduced endurance, increased fatigue, altered thermo regulatory capability, reduced motivation, and increased perceived effort.
Water, or its lack (dehydration), can influence cognition. Mild levels of dehydration can produce disruptions in mood and cognitive functioning. This may be of special concern in the very young, very old, those in hot climates, and those engaging in vigorous exercise. Mild dehydration produces alterations in a number of important aspects of cognitive function such as concentration, alertness and short-term memory in children, young adults and in the oldest adults. As with physical functioning, mild to moderate levels of dehydration can impair performance on tasks such as short-term memory, perceptual discrimination, arithmetic ability and psycho motor skills. It is possible therefore, that heat-stress may play a critical role in the effects of dehydration on cognitive performance.
Keep in mind ! Numerous lay sources such as beauty and health magazines as well as the Internet suggest that drinking 8–10 glasses of water a day will “flush toxins from the skin” and “give a glowing complexion” despite a general lack of evidence to support these proposals
Significant water loss can occur through the gastrointestinal tract, and this can be of great concern in the very young. In developing countries, diarrheal diseases are a leading cause of death in children resulting in approximately 1.5–2.5 million deaths per year. Diarrheal illness results not only in a reduction in body water, but also in potentially lethal electrolyte imbalances. Mortality in such cases can many times be prevented with appropriate oral rehydration therapy, by which simple dilute solutions of salt and sugar in water can replace fluid lost by diarrhea. Many consider application of oral rehydration therapy to be one of the signal public health developments of the last century.
As noted above, the kidney is crucial in regulating water balance and blood pressure as well as removing waste from the body.
Heart function and hemodynamic response
Blood volume, blood pressure, and heart rate are closely linked. Blood volume is normally tightly regulated by matching water intake and water output, as described in the section on kidney function.
Water deprivation and dehydration can lead to the development of headache. Although this observation is largely unexplored in the medical literature, some observational studies indicate that water deprivation, in addition to impairing concentration and increasing irritability, can serve as a trigger for migraine and also prolong migraine. The folk wisdom that drinking water can stave off headaches has been relatively unchallenged, and has more traction in the popular press than in the medical literature. Sometimes you need just a bit motivation to take that glass of water, so we recommend this article.
And skin cells like any other cell in the body are almost entirely made up of water. Without water the organs in the body – and the skin is the biggest – won’t function properly. The potential contributions of drinking water to nutritional status also depend on water consumption, which is highly variable depending on both behavioral factors and environmental conditions. Individuals with the greatest relative consumption of water include infants, residents in hot climates, and individuals engaged in strenuous physical activity.
One of the more pervasive myths regarding water intake is the improvement of the skin or complexion. By improvement, it is generally understood that individuals are seeking to have a more “moisturized” look to the surface skin, or to minimize acne or other skin conditions. Numerous lay sources such as beauty and health magazines as well as the Internet suggest that drinking 8–10 glasses of water a day will “flush toxins from the skin” and “give a glowing complexion” despite a general lack of evidence to support these proposals. The skin, however, is important in maintaining body water levels and preventing water loss into the environment. The skin contains approximately 30% water, which contributes to plumpness, elasticity, and resiliency. The overlapping cellular structure of the stratum corneum and lipid content of the skin serves as “waterproofing” for the body. Loss of water through sweat is not indiscriminate across the total surface of the skin, but is carried out by eccrine sweat glands, which are evenly distributed over most of the body surface
Hydration and chronic diseases
Many chronic diseases have multifactorial origins. In particular, differences in lifestyle and the impact of environment are known to be involved and constitute risk factors that are still being evaluated. Water is quantitatively the most important nutrient. In the past, scientific interest with regard to water metabolism was mainly directed toward the extremes of severe dehydration and water intoxication. There is evidence, however, that mild dehydration may also account for some morbidities. Good hydration is associated with a reduction in urinary tract infections, hypertension, fatal coronary heart disease, venous thromboembolism, and cerebral infarct but all these effects need to be confirmed by clinical trials.
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