Do not afraid of the word — FAT!
Fat is one of the most essential nutrients that can be found in all human body cells.
Fat is a good source of energy, participates in thermoregulatory processes, gives food sensory properties (taste, smell, color), slows down digestion, and thus delays the feeling of hunger.
With fat, the body receives fat-soluble vitamins – A, D, E, K, and improves these vitamins’ absorption.
Fats are made up of glycerol and fatty acids such as saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated. Saturated fatty acids predominate in animal fats.
More monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as linolenic, and oleic, are essential in the diet.
These fats play a crucial role in metabolism.
That’s why all kinds of oil are very important in order to have a healthy lifestyle.
What are the best oils for women? Best oil for skin, best oil for hair, etc.
Essential Oils For Women Skin, Hair, and Body.
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These polyunsaturated fatty acids (PNRRs) are crucial active ingredients of functional food in terms of their physiological function in the human body.
They are considered essential in the human diet because they are not synthesized by the body and must be obtained from food such as marine animals, fish, and vegetable oils.
The best oils for women’s hair, skin, and body:
Top oils for women:
- Clary Sage oil
- Geranium oil
- Oregano oil
- Frankincense oil
- Lavender oil
- Bergamot oil
- Ginger Root oil
- Neroli oil
- Lemon oil
- Rose oil
- Chamomile oil
- Marjoram oil
- Basil oil
Other most popular oils:
- Coconut oil,
- Corn oil
- Canola oil
- Cottonseed oil,
- Olive oil
- Palm oil
- Peanut oil
- Rapeseed oil
- Safflower oil
- Sesame oil
- Soybean oil
- Sunflower oil
- Almond oil
- Brazil nut
- Cashew oil
- Hazelnut oil
- Macadamia oil
- Mongongo nut
- Pecan oil
- Pine nut oil
- Pistachio oil
- Walnut oil
- Pumpkin seed oil
There is the substitute list in case you can’t find some oils:
What is vegetable oil, and what is its energy value?
Vegetable oil is a valuable food product that enriches the human diet with monounsaturated, polyunsaturated, saturated fatty acids, and fat-soluble vitamins.
Vegetable oil is a food product made from vegetable raw materials, consisting of glycerides of saturated fatty acids, lipids, free fatty acids, vitamins A, D, E, K, etc.
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100 g. vegetable oil gives the human body 700-900 kcal.
1 tablespoon of vegetable oil contains up to 120 kcal.
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Methods of oil extraction
The oil is extracted from the plant material by seed pressing and extraction.
1.The essence of the press is the extrusion of oil from crushed seeds, from which the husk is partially removed.
- Cold pressure – the crushed raw material is pressed at a temperature of 60-90 ° C. Very high-quality oil is obtained. 3-12% of oil remains in the pulp.
- Hot pressing – the chopped raw material is pressed at a temperature of 100 ° C and higher. High-quality oil is obtained. 0.5-3% of oil remains in the pulp. However, it acquires an undesirable protein taste and odor – it is necessary to clean.
2 . Extraction process – consists of a series of processes: the seeds are cleaned of husks, dried, crushed, and extracted in extractors with organic solvents to obtain a low-fat, solid cake and dissolved oil. The dissolved oil is then purified from a residual organic solvent.
- Extraction with organic solvents.
- Dissolve the crushed raw material with hot water to dissolve the oil. Water is separated by extraction.
- Liquefied carbon dioxide.
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Rapeseed oil is obtained by cold pressing, ie, without heating, but only by mechanical pressing.
If the purchase of the oil on the packaging indicates that the oil is produced by first pressing, then the pressing of the oil is a heated raw material, which makes it easier to squeeze the oil.
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This, of course, requires more energy resources, but oil extraction is more efficient because less raw material is needed to produce the same amount of oil.
After squeezing, the oil may or may not be refined. Refined oil means cleaned of contaminants and other impurities.
The refined oil is treated with an alkali (soda hydroxide) at a temperature of about 450 oC to remove fatty acids and phospholipids. Refined oils are faint in color and can heat up quickly.
After refining, the oil is filtered, deodorized, and bleached. The bleaching and filtration procedure involves filtering the hot oil through activated carbon or activated clay.
During this process, chlorophyll and vitamin A are removed, and the resistance of the oil to deterioration is reduced. Unrefined oil is one from which only mechanical impurities have been removed. There are different opinions as to which oil is more worth consuming. Some say that refining removes harmful chemicals, although they are insignificant, and only a small part of the useful substances is destroyed during cleaning, and the quality of the oil is poorly affected.
Others believe that refining is unnecessary because it removes vitamins A and E and phosphorus compounds such as lecithin. And yet, because the refining process reduces the stability of the oil, it shortens their shelf life, and additional preservatives are used to prolong it. Of course, from an ecological point of view, it is better to use unrefined, cold-pressed oil, because refining requires additional energy and the process also pollutes the environment.
Whereas the refining process reduces the stability of the oil, thereby shortening its shelf life and extending the use of additional preservatives.
Of course, from an ecological point of view, it is better to use unrefined, cold-pressed oil, because refining requires additional energy and the process also pollutes the environment.
Whereas the refining process reduces the stability of the oil, thereby shortening its shelf life and extending the use of additional preservatives.
Of course, from an ecological point of view, it is better to use unrefined, cold-pressed oil because refining requires extra energy and the process also pollutes the environment.
How is the oil refined, and which oil to choose?
Vegetable oils are the most common type of fat. There are several methods of oil extraction:
Using a hydraulic press (“cold pressure”). This is the oldest method. The only raw material from which enough oil can be squeezed without first heating it is olives and sesame seeds. Therefore, only sesame seed and olive oils are the only ones that can be called “cold-pressed” oils. These oils have a strong odor, bright color, exceptional taste and are often difficult to obtain.
Pulp oil. Screw and constant pressure with a rotating shaft are used. The cooked raw material is placed at one end of the screw and pressed continuously until it is removed through the other end with the squeezed oil. The temperature reaches 200-250ºC.
Solvent oil extraction. The raw materials are boiled and mixed with a solvent (usually oil-based), which is then removed from the oil in solid form. The oil is extracted in this way more and cheaper.
Purification (refining) reduces the value of the oil, but this increases its applicability. Refined oil loses its taste and smell, harmful, but at the same time – useful substances. Fully refined oils of different types do not differ from each other in color, smell, or taste. Their nutritional value is indicated by fatty acids (linoleic and linolenic). Fatty acids remain even after the complete refining of the oil.
Refined and unrefined oils can be seen in the shops. The first is clear, golden or light yellow, free of sediment, has a faint odor or no odor at all. Unrefined oil is darker in color, smells stronger, and precipitates on standing.
As an oil refined
Refining is a complex of various physical and chemical processes that can selectively affect by-products to remove them from the oil. There are two ways of refining: physical and chemical. Chemical refining combines hydration, neutralization, bleaching and deodorization. During physical refining, free fatty acids and odors are removed by distillation. In this case, the neutralization and deodorization operations are combined into one.
Classification of oil for women
According to the raw materials used in production:
- Quality – produced from one oil crop raw material. Its name depends on the name of the raw material used: sunflower, canola, olives, etc.
- Blended – made from a mixture of different types of oils. Such oils are given a certain name (Floriol, Brioni, etc.)
Oil purification steps:
Hydration is the removal of water-soluble phospholipids from oil. This is the first stage in ensuring not only the quality of the refined oil, but also the success of further refining. Phospholipids can automatically hydrate from moisture in the air. When combined with water, they precipitate into flake-like sediments. During hydration, some quality indicators of the oil improve – it brightens,
Acid hydration is the removal of hydrated and non-hydrated phospholipids before or during neutralization by treatment with concentrated and dilute mineral and organic acids (phosphoric and citric acids). Acid hydration is a common improvement in hydration (especially popular in the U.S.) because there is always some phospholipid left in the hydrating oil.
Oil purification steps:
Wax removal – Corn, rice germ, sunflower, sesame, and safflower oils contain high levels of waxes, so this type of oil requires an additional wax separation operation. Waxes can be removed by cooling and filtering the oil or by antifreeze. Wax separation is sometimes performed during the removal of phospholipids or soap using centrifugation at low temperatures. The waxes in sunflower oil can also be separated during neutralization.
Alkaline refining (neutralization ) is the removal of free fatty acids from the oil that can irritate the taste. For all oils except soybeans and rapeseed, neutralization is done in conjunction with hydration. The following neutralization methods are used in the production: neutralization of free fatty acids (LRR) with alkali – alkaline refining, removal of LRR at high temperature, and vacuum – distillation refining LRR separation using selective solvents – extraction refining. During the neutralization of LRR with dilute alkali solutions, practically insoluble salts (soaps) – soapstocks – are formed. Acidification of soapstocks with sulfuric acid produces an “acid oil” which is used to feed the animals.
Removal of soap and moisture residues – after soapstock separation, soap always remains in the oil, which degrades the taste properties of the oil, promotes oxidation, and negatively affects the further stages of refining. The oil is washed with water or treated with a solution of citric acid. Moisture Removal from the oil – the final stage of the neutralization process. Drying is carried out under a vacuum, during which the moisture evaporates intensively, and at the same time, the air in the oil is removed.
Adsorption refining (bleaching) – removal of dyes (pigments, peroxides, by-products of oxidation, soap) and water residues from oil using activated bentonite clays. Bleaching is performed in a vacuum because the clays can catalyze the oxidation of the oil in the presence of oxygen. Used clay can absorb 30-50% of the oil, so it is washed with steam to reduce the oil content to 20%. Solvents are sometimes used, leaving only 3% oil.
Deodorization is the final and very important stage of oil refining, during which taste and odor-determining compounds such as the remaining LRR, aldehydes, ketones and alcohols are removed. Deodorization also removes peroxide compounds, which is the most effective way to remove toxic chemicals. Deodorization – steam distillation performed at high temperature under vacuum. Steam is needed to remove and mix unwanted components.
Distribution of vegetable oils
According to the production method, vegetable oil is divided into:
Extra virgin oil is oil obtained by mechanical means (presses) or heating. Pressing and high-temperature conditions (up to 105◦C) produce aromatic, nutritious, and biologically valuable oils. The oils produced in this way are suitable for longer use due to the special substances formed during heating.
Cold-pressed oil – oil obtained by mechanical means (presses) without heating (raw material temperature does not reach 49◦C during pressing). This is a fairly expensive method of extraction. Cold-pressed oil has strong taste properties, maximum nutritional value due to the retention of biologically active substances. Unfortunately, cold-pressed oils are not resistant to storage. As a result, the shelf life is shorter.
The color, taste, and smell of each type of vegetable oil must correspond to the type of oil, there must be no foreign smell and taste characteristic of the defective oil.
According to the melting temperature, oils are divided into:
I gr. Oils with a melting point of 230-260◦C. This group includes vegetable oils that can withstand high heat treatment temperatures. The following oils are suitable for frying, cooking, frying: avocado, almond, apricot kernel, safflower, sunflower, palm fruit, sesame oils.
II gr. Oils with a melting point of 180-230◦C. Oils belonging to this group are suitable for frying and cooking: rapeseed, grape seed, safflower, coconut, soybean, walnut oils.
III gr. vegetable oils with a melting point of 130-180◦C. Oils are suitable for light frying, sauces, salads: sesame, peanut, olive, coconut, nut oils.
IV gr. vegetable oils with a melting point of 100-104 ◦C. These are rich-smelling oils that are more suitable for seasoning, sauces, porridges, soups, salads (cucumber, wheat germ, linseed oil) or can be added to the final cooked dish to improve the taste. Such oils are not suitable for heating (eg frying).
Types of vegetable oil, their use, and nutritional value
Linseed oil. Suitable for seasoning salads, seasoning vegetables, potato dishes, seasonings. It can be used to enhance the taste of the dishes. Nutritional value: contains polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega -3), so it is suitable for patients with cardiovascular diseases.
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Almond oil. Obtained from nut kernels. It is a rather expensive oil, which has a strong aroma of fried almonds, is suitable for producing salad dressings, sauces, and desserts. Due to the high smoke point, it is ideal for baking in high-temperature conditions. Nutritional value: it is rich in monounsaturated fatty acids, vitamins A, E.
Apricot kernel oil. Extracted from dried apricot kernels. Due to the high melting point, it is suitable for frying and baking in high-temperature conditions. The strong aroma is used to flavor salads—nutritional value: high in monounsaturated fatty acids, no trans fatty acids.
Avocado oil. Due to its unique aroma and taste, it is suitable for seasoning salads, often used as a spice. It has the highest smoke point of all vegetable oils, suitable for heat treatment in high-temperature conditions. Nutritional value: it has monounsaturated fatty acids, vitamins A, E.
Rapeseed oil. Suitable for baking, food production, salad seasoning. Nutritional value: Of all the fats, it contains the least saturated fatty acids, the most omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, which are essential for health because they help lower arterial blood pressure and reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease.
Chili pepper oil. When stored at room temperature for six months, it loses the specific aroma and taste of hot pepper, so it is recommended to store it in the refrigerator. Suitable for enhancing the taste of dishes, flavoring, for preparing Chinese dishes.
Corn oil. Made from corn kernels and germs, Due to the high smoking point, it is suitable for use at high temperatures for baking, cooking, as well as sauces, margarine, and culinary fats. Nutritional value: contains polyunsaturated fatty acids.
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Cotton oil. Suitable for making margarine, culinary fats, salad seasonings, and sauces.
Hazelnut oil. Due to the smell of fried nuts, it is used in the confectionery industry to flavor sauces, condiments, and fish dishes. It should be stored cool in the refrigerator because, after 3 months of storage at room temperature, it loses its aroma. After removal from the refrigerator when stored at room temperature after 1-2 hours, it liquefies.
Macadamia nut oil. Used for salad seasoning, condiments, marinade production. Due to the high melting temperature, it is suitable for baking and frying in high-temperature conditions. Nutritional value: is a source of monounsaturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega -3, omega-6).
Mustard oil. Extracted from mustard seeds. Has a bitter mustard flavor. Used as a fragrance. At high smoking point temperatures, the taste of mustard oil softens, so when the dish is finished, the taste of mustard oil does not suppress the taste of the main dish. Store in the refrigerator for 6 months. Used for baking, salad seasoning, marinade (meat, fish) production.
Olive oil. Improves the taste of many dishes. Suitable for baking, cooking, salad seasoning.
Palm oil. Suitable for cooking, baking, vegetable oil and margarine, used as a flavoring.
Peanut oil. Has a high melting point. Suitable for roasting, baking, salad seasoning, margarine production. Nutritional value: contains monounsaturated, polyunsaturated fatty acids.
Cedar seed oil. Very expensive oil. Suitable for salads, green vegetables, food seasoning.
Poppyseed oil. Suitable for seasoning salads and various foods, especially bread and cake products.
Pumpkin seed oil. Extracted from fried seeds with spicy taste properties. Suitable for baking, salad seasoning, especially suitable for fish and vegetable dishes.
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Rice husk oil. Suitable for baking, cooking, to enhance the taste of dishes. Used in the production of various snacks, cookies, fried foods. Nutritional value: contains B vitamins, minerals, amino acids. This oil is a great source of antioxidants.
Safflower oil. It has a high melting point, which makes it suitable for frying, baking, salad seasoning, margarine production. Nutritional value: a source of polyunsaturated fatty acids.
Sesame seed oil. Suitable for baking, marinades (meat, fish), salad seasoning, to enhance the taste of dishes.
Soybean oil. Due to the high smoke point, it is suitable for cooking, baking, Chinese dishes, margarine, and vegetable oil production and condiments. Nutritional value: a source of polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega-3), monounsaturated fatty acids.
Sunflower seed oil. Suitable for baking, cooking, salad seasoning.
Tea tree oil. Sweet-tasting and grass-scented oil. Has a high melting point. Suitable for baking, cooking, sauces, marinades, salad seasoning. Nutritional value: Vitamin E, a source of antioxidants, has no trans fatty acids, low in saturated fatty acids.
Vegetable oil. Obtained from blended vegetable oils. Due to the high smoke point, it is suitable for frying, baking, and cooking. Not recommended for seasoning salads.
Walnut oil. Very expensive oil. When stored at room temperature, its aroma disappears after 3 months. When stored in the refrigerator – thickens, but after removing it becomes liquid after 1-2 hours. Suitable for aromatizing pastries, seasoning salads, seasoning production.
Wheat germ oil. Suitable for salad seasoning, pasta dishes. Nutritional value – a source of vitamin E.
Cucumber oil. Nutritional value – a source of omega-3 fatty acids.
How does oil change during culinary processing?
During culinary processing (baking, boiling) the process of thermal oxidation of fats takes place, during which the nutritional value of the oil changes: new oxidation products (free radical molecules, benzo (a) pyrene compounds) appear. The mentioned compounds are toxic to humans, weaken the immune system, inhibit the formation of erythrocytes, promote disorders of the reproductive system. If, when heating the vegetable oil, you feel that the smoke has started to rise, stop the heat treatment immediately, drain the oil, ventilate the room, such oil is not suitable for cooking.
Due to such ongoing processes, the re-use of previously used cooking oil is not recommended. So if there is oil left while frying the meat in the pan, do not use it a second time. Only oils specifically designed for frying can be reused.
Which is better – vegetable or animal fats?
There is no meaningful answer to such a question. We need to know how much and what kind of fat we need to consume per day (link). Our body needs both vegetable and animal fats. Their need at different ages, based on gender and physical activity, is indicated by evidence-based amounts of nutrients.
Vegetable fats – oils, and animal fats – butter or fat have the same caloric content: from 1g of fat, the body receives 9kcal. Most people consume a lot of animal fats, and they are high in cholesterol and saturated fatty acids. Excess amounts of such fats are not good for our health.
Vegetable fats do not contain cholesterol.
This reduces the risk of getting too much of it. They have higher amounts of polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fatty acids. These acids reduce the risk of some diseases. Thus, they are necessary for the maintenance of good health, and the required amount according to physiological needs must be obtained with food.
Edible oil is a liquid product of plant origin composed mainly of unsaturated fatty acids. As a food product, the oil is used relatively little: mainly for baking, salad dressings, and margarine.
Vegetable oil contains different amounts of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids, depending on its type. These unsaturated fatty acids are exposed to light and, when exposed to air, become hot, have an unpleasant taste and smell, and become unfit for consumption.
The oil is best stored in a dry, cool place at room temperature but can also be stored in the refrigerator. Oils stored in the refrigerator usually thicken but return to their original position after standing at room temperature. The shelf life of oil depends on its type and method of processing.
Specialists from the National Institute for Food and Veterinary Risk Assessment recommend that refined oils high in monounsaturated fatty acids be stored for up to 12 months and high in polyunsaturated fatty acids for up to 6 months. Cold-pressed and pure oils are stored for up to 9 months.
To keep the product as good as possible is recommended to read the labeling labels, which indicate the expiry date, storage conditions, and method of use.